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    3. Persia

      Persia was characterized by the high level of developments of landscape design. An example of this garden was built in IV c. B.C. The Garden of the King Cyrus I in the capital of Lydia was created with the thinnest trees and the most splendid flowers, picturesquely  located on the flower beds.

      The basis of their strictly geometric (regular) planning was - charbagh - the form of the garden, which attempts to imitate paradise from which four sacred rivers escape and divide it into four squares - the parts, which represent peace. The alleys, which were lined with plates, bisected each other and the space between them was filled with thick wooden vegetation or was occupied by ponds and luxurious flower gardens. The formed large square was divided into four smaller squares and so on. This separation of space was accomplished not only by paths, but also with the aid of the plants and a large number of small channels filled with water, which pass through each of these four gardens in order to be connected at the central pond. Trees and flowers of rare forms occupied the main and best part of the garden, the sycamore enjoyed special popularity, under which gazebos were arranged. In it cypresses, sycamores, poplars, plum trees, peach trees, apricot trees, almond trees and silkworm trees grew. The garden was surrounded by walls and decorated with beautiful pavilions with the refined finish and revetment of gold and blue tiles at the entrance. The gardens contained deer, partridges and other animals.

      Basic special features of the charbagh garden included the retaining wall, the use of terraces, rectangular ponds, the internal network of channels, garden pavilions and the broad spectrum of magnificent vegetation. Persian gardens frequently attempted to unite the indoor and outdoor spaces and to make a combination aesthetical and functional features. All these gardens are completely isolated from the external world and they were surrounded by elegant houses, galleries, colonnades, arcades, artistic rock lattices located between the external and internal parts.

      It is traditional that such gardens were closed. The purpose of these gardens was to provide a place for relaxation through spiritual methods and a place for leisure time to be spent (meeting with friends, for example) and to essentially create paradise on the earth. Because of their luxury and perfection these small gardens were called paradise gardens.

      The skill of creating parks was conceived in Ancient Persia. These were the larger parks-zoos on the artificially watered soil and were utilized as a place for royal hunts. The Ancient Persians were one of the first civilizations to create such parks. These parks were mainly populated for the hunting of animals such as lions, panthers, boars and they occupied enormous areas. Ancient Persians loved to hunt with comfort; therefore in the parks were picturesquely scattered the richly decorated pavilions, around which flower gardens and fountains were arranged . Watch towers were placed along the roads. Sycamores were planted on both sides of the roads which were paved with wide plates. Ponds were made and flower gardens were arranged along the roads. Sometimes wild parks and fruit gardens were united into a unified whole.

      Specifically, the Persians began to practice planting and neatly trimming of the hedges - hedges. These hedges helped  to divide the park into several zones, where they attempted to recreate different unique landscapes.

      Persian garden design influenced the creation of the gardens of the entire Ancient East. Under the influence of the Ancient Persian landscape design arose many other gardens of the world - in Turkey, the Moorish gardens in Spain and the gardens in the Crimea Tatar Khans. The eastern gardens became the reflection of the perception of peace through religion and philosophy, here gardens were symbols of paradise. They were created for leisure with the royal residences and they required high financial expenditures.