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    3. Monastery and Feudal Gardens

      In the V-IX c. A.D.  feudalism brought with itself many internal wars, which slowed down the development of landscaping. It existed only in the protected territories of monasteries and castles. Europeans forgot most of the traditions of ancient times and the purpose of garden became exceptionally utilitarian, to supply its owner with food. Gardens were arranged small, only in the monastery and in a small quantity for the feudal aristocracy - the noble, in the territory of castles.

      MONASTERY GARDENS had multiple types: vegetable gardens, infirmary gardens of medicinal herbs, cloisters, and orchards. Monasteries Gardens were created to produce food for the monks and contained vegetables and medicinal plants. Roses, mallows, carnations, peonies, violets and lilies grew in the gardens as well. Apple and pear trees were widely cultivated for preparing cider, mulberry and cherry trees were only planted in the gardens of the aristocracy. In the monastery gardens it was usually possible to encounter different medicinal and decorative plants. The planning of such gardens was sufficiently simple, they always contained one or several fountains and pond. Monasteries sometimes had separate plots for each person to work.

      The garden was usually divided into four parts by paths. Bushes of roses were planted or a sculpture of Jesus Christ was positioned where all four paths intersected. The distinguishing feature of these gardens was their privacy, silence and contemplativeness. A unique feature of the monastery gardens was the use of the first hedge  mazes in which the paths, surrounded by a hedge fence, brought the visitors to the center of the park. This feature was also used in the planning of XIX c. parks.

      FEUDAL GARDENS were arranged inside the territory of castles. In the gardens the flowers were grown in flower beds, the alleys which were wound by grapes were developed, apple trees were grown and rosaries were arranged. For the large castles the creation of the large gardens was characteristic. In such gardens the first decorative elements, such as arbours, flower beds, trellises, pools and fountains began to appear.  

      Hedge mazes and botanical gardens appeared. Hedge mazes first appeared in monastery gardens and then won acceptance into Regular and Irregular parks. Botanical gardens began to appear with the appearance of the first universities.