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    3. The Middle East and South Asia

      Traditionally, the Middle Eastern and South Asian gardens became the reflection of the perception of peace through religion and philosophy. In this region gardens were symbols of paradise. For example the charbagh, or paradise garden was intended for rest, reflection  and contemplation. For this reason, these gardens usually included places for sitting, unlike European gardens, which were often designed for walking. They were created for leisure at the royal residences and they required high financial expenditures

      Persia - Persian garden design influenced the creation of the gardens of the entire Ancient East. Landscape design arose in many other gardens of the world under the influence of the Ancient Persians - in Turkey, the Moorish gardens in Spain and the gardens in the Crimea Tatar Khans. Muslim science and medicine formed the powerful system of medicine and gardens with medicinal plants have been maintained since olden times in the regions of India, Iran and Tibet.

      India - Indian civilization gave birth to Buddhism, with which began the creation of monastery gardens. Worshiping trees were an ancient custom of the Hindus. In the sacred Hindu books the Lumbinetsky garden is mentioned, which was the property of the Hindu kings. In the first period of the spread of Buddhism in India the construction of gardens and parks, intended for contemplative leisure, began. In the parks there were ponds of amazing beauty that had open gazebos which were easy on the eyes and flower gardens that were organized using the principles of Zen. This was the complete failure of the utilitarian purpose of the garden. This park embodied the idea of the unity of man and nature.

      The traditional Middle Eastern and South Asian gardens included certain shared design elements. The most common were enclosing walls, water features, trees and flowers, and extensive use of the arabesque, a Islamic geometric decoration.

      • The first design element was shade. One of the central features is to create shade to keep cool, as a way to cope with hot climate.
      • The second design element was walls for shape, temperature regulation and insulation. The garden's provided protection from the harsh desert environment and from the dust and pollution of the adjacent streets, to emphasize the privacy of the family and of its female members in particular, and to display a modest and humble exterior to the outside world.
      • The third design element was water or reflection ponds. Water played many roles within the garden design, emphasizing architectural elements, masking outdoor noise, producing pleasing sounds, irrigating plants, moisturizing and cooling the hot dry microclimate, soothing the dusty wind, and to embrace a high regard for water as the indispensable support of life. Their application of water as a design element often produced clean alignments and crisp colours. 
      • The fourth design element was plants. Fruit trees, in general, had a very high priority in the overall design scheme. They provided not only food and daytime color but also a canopy over the courtyard at night. This canopy restricted losses of cold air from below effectively trapping cool air. Traditional designers circulated this cool air from the garden through the house, thereby creating a natural cooling system. Poplars and cypresses gave climatological protection. Elms, willows, and oaks gave shade in summer and let the sun shine through in winter. In order to alleviate the problems of turbulence caused by walls, tall narrow-leafed cypresses were added to filter the dust and to reduce windspeed within the garden. These were planted across the entire east and west sides and thus cast shadows across the whole garden throughout the day. Pines were used as a large-scale contrast. Citrus trees were treasured for their fruit and perfumed flowers. Animals, introduced to give life to the garden, included swans, pheasants, pigeons, ducks and singing birds. 
      • Mosaics were another important design element. This was an interesting combination of a pebble intricate mosaic tiles with the parterre design.

      International garden designers in search of inspiration and useful ideas are exploring the old Middle Eastern and South Asian gardens, but many emphasize fanciful geometric patterns, elaborate water features, and colorful planting schemes at the expense of the historical, philosophical, metaphysical, and poetic dimensions of these "earthly paradises."