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    3. European Countries from ХV c. - to the Beginning of the XVIII c. Regular Style

      The Middle Ages were the Golden Age of landscape design. The difficult and chaotic Middle Ages was the cause of the bloom of culture which began in the XV c. and continued until the XVIII c. In some regions of Europe the knowledge which was accumulated before was lost over time, but in other regions landscape design progressed and flourished. Political instability, religious persecutions, and crusades, which engulfed a politically insecure Europe, were the power which combined the remains of classicism, the philosophy of Christianity, and some new ideas which were slowly brought from the Moorish countries, India and China.

      For the beginning and the development of a certain style of landscape design certain varied conditions must exist. Such conditions include a specific climate or certain topographical features. Landscape design split into two distinct directions around this time. The two directions were Regular Style and Irregular Style:

      -the Regular Style was based on the principles of symmetry

      -the Irregular Style was based on the imitation of nature and its characteristics.

      Regular Style always includes the use of expansive parterre space, where the focus is placed on the house. It is also typical for designs in the regular style to contain a strict symmetry and straight lines, and use the main composition axis. Gardens in the regular style were located primarily in Italy, France, England, Germany and Austria, and in Portugal, but in each country they consisted of different landscape elements.