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    3. Classic styles

      • REGULAR
      • MOORISH
      • CHINESE
      • JAPANESE


      Regular style assumes a strict symmetry in the planning of garden. In regular style straight lines and strict and axial compositions are inherent. Regular style is now used where they want to emphasize the feeling of order, strictness and solemnity. Emotional special features of this style include elevation, solemnity, the abundance of sculptures, theatricality. Regular style is luxurious. Wide straight alleys go off into the distance, the trees are trimmed, ornamental flower gardens are planted on the lawn and charm with their abundance of colours and nuances. Trees and bushes are plant according to a square, rectangular or checker pattern.
      All elements are symmetrical and clearly ordered in the space. This design style will appeal to people who love order, predictability and symmetry in everything. Regular gardens will be an excellent addition to luxurious houses designed in the classical style, they will create the atmosphere of solidity and style in your site. Your garden will be ideal place for the reception of guests with its long, slow walks and conversations. Guests will be amazed by the beauty of the corridors made of hedges, lawns, sculptures, fountains, which give the possibility to be enjoyed and at the same time provide rest from the busyness of life.

      Water - is an important element of the regular garden: strictly symmetrical, usually rectangular forms of ponds with fountains, cascades and wall fountains. Paths and alleys must straight, flat and clear - parallel, perpendicular or in a circle. It is possible to achieve the effect of theatricality if we make an uncommon bench, which after being sat on, will start to spray mist and streams of water, it is possible to use the same method on paths, but then the water will appear after one of the tiles has been stepped on instead.
      Parterres - one of the main elements of a classical landscape - composition in the horizontal plane, as a rule, on large open spaces. The name “parterres” comes from two French words “par” and “terre”, which means “on the soil”. Parterres  can be made of grass, flowers or lace, in the form of multi-coloured patterns, made from different materials.
      Bosquet - trees and shrubs precisely cut into the shape of walls. Skilful palace gardeners used them for the creation of an entire system of small " rooms" in the garden, placing them along the paths. This method can be used today, creating space for privacy and quiet relaxation. A semicircular niche, with a diameter of several meters and a bench can become a small, comfortable corner, isolated from the house or the street by hedge by trellis (a support for vines) which are impossible to see through. Care of garden in the regular style is complex. Constant trimming of the plants and mowing of the lawn is required to keep it looking beautiful.
      Тerraces - are used in the design of a landscape during the arrangement of the site which is on a slope. They can be multileveled and connected with stairs  and bridges among themselves. During their decoration sculptures, shaped enclosures and flower pots are used.
      Flower gardens take shape with the aid of figure trimmed evergreen bushes. For one bush a few square meters are sufficient. Two or four bushes, symmetrically located, can determine the nature of the entire garden. A bush in the center of a flower bed looks excellent, especially when cut in the form of sphere, cone or another uncommon shape. A group of evergreens can be highlighted with white or coloured gravel or showcased by blooming plants. The flower decoration of a site, as a rule, consists of one or two-coloured borders of low annual plants, that bloom for prolonged time (african marigolds, petunias, viol), or a border of the ground cover plants with a thorough control of their spread and the required space at the edge of the lawn. Plant pots-containers are frequently used. Containers must be ceramic,  have a correct shape and be placed with a specific rhythm and according to the symmetrically balanced plans.
      Two accentuated points -  are a required element of the regular style: they are the upper and lower. From the upper point it is intended to examine the panorama of the lower garden. When desired it is possible to use retaining walls or terraces in your garden, connected by stairs or bridges. Greeks sculptures will fit in very well. Symmetry and order rule everything. For some this style of garden will seem very boring and old-fashioned, but in reality regular landscape design creates a celebratory and happy atmosphere. Nature in this style of garden is completely subordinated to man and mathematics. The position of each pebble and branch is thoroughly adjusted and is completely controlled.

      This style of landscape design does not separate the artificially planted plants from the surrounding nature, it does not make them isolated or obviously separating from the environment. In this garden there are no straight lines and outlines, there are no figure-trimmed trees and no straight paths. Its task it is to preserve the naturalness of the plants, to make them seem part of wild nature. For example, when looking at a pond with such free borders, designed with the irregular style, you even will not believe that this miracle is created by the hands of man. The pond has a beach and overgrowth of bright green grass, the benches are similar to large boulders and trees maybe be collapsed, trees grow on their own in which ever direction they want and have picturesquely stretched branches. The asymmetrical arrangement of objects is harmoniously entered into the natural landscape. Its naturalness wakes up romantic feelings and sentimentality. Freedom and harmony reign everywhere.
      Free picturesque planning leads man to closer harmony with nature and usually requires less earthwork, retaining walls, screens and structures. Consequently, it is better united with entire surrounding landscape and usually costs less. Specifically, from this style we can borrow the methods of visual enlargement of the space and the strengthening of its depth, which is extraordinarily important for the contemporary garden which usually has a small area. Each site can be designed with a more complete evaluation of its natural landscape features. Motion becomes freer. With this design style a person can feel harmony with nature.
      Plants which grow in this climatic zone are used in this style. Recently in the gardens of irregular style it is very popular to plant decorative grasses and cereals plants.
      However, in order to obtain a landscape design of this style, which possesses natural harmony and beauty, hard work is necessary. This work is more delicate and requires a deep feeling of taste and measure in landscape designer. It is necessary to evaluate and plan everything - the relationship of the closed and free space, functionality, color accents and decorativeness. A landscape design of this style can easily convert negative aspects of your site into positive ones. An asymmetrical site with uneven relief can become the corner of a fairytale garden in the hands of a good designer.
      This landscape style is most frequently used by landscape architects with the planning of contemporary estates. However, the desire to place largest possible quantity of fashionable decorative elements (Chinese houses and lanterns in combination with Alpine hills and sculptures) as well as native and exotic plants on a small territory leads the repetition of the errors of the beginning of the 18th Century, when inexperienced landscape designers attempted to use all of the nuances of landscape design.
      The paths, located in the site must have a winding design, but turns must not be sharp. The material of paths is usually of a natural origin or is imitative, gravel sifting or natural stone easily adapts unlike the sidewalk tile. Compositions are created in such a way that during motion objects appear in your field of view that were not there only moments ago and motion always produces new impressions and unexpected solutions. Harmony in the combination of elements is the main standard for the completeness of the view. Plants planted in a linear fashion are replace with groups of plants and the smooth, bent line appear and trees are freely planted. Paths and streams are made with a wavy design, ponds have natural outlines. Pavilions, gazebos and small fountains are also widely used. The nature in the garden harmonizes with the environment, and the unevenness of relief  is an advantage of an irregular type of garden. The application of combinations of open and closed spaces is possible, in nature this is the combination of wide, open meadows and tight, dense forests. An old pond will greatly benefit your garden.
      Parterre lawn - is most of all characteristic of the irregular style. It is built in front of the facade of the house or in a special, beautiful corner of a garden. Parterre lawn requires frequent irrigation, feeding and mowing. This lawn serves only as decorative element, it is not designed for walks and occupies a small area. The lawn can serve as the path, but it must always be cut short and be resistant to trampling.
      Flower gardens are arranged near the house or the pond. All flowers are different and are planted in groups. The nature of the flowers has a great significance, the combination of their form and colour, even their colour in the fall.
      Sculptures made of stone or wood.
      The house is the continuation of the garden, it must not be striking to the eye, but instead be hidden among the verdure of trees.
      Mixed border (a flower garden of irregular shape with a large collection of plants) is characteristic of an irregular style garden. It plays the function of a border and adjoins the wall or paths. Besides the decorative colourful plants with the original structure of leaves, planting several medicinal plants as well as deciduous and coniferous trees with an uncommon crown and colour is also popular.
      Rockery - another benefit of an irregular garden - in contrast to an alpine garden, which has picky Alpine vegetation, it has low growing plants. Good illumination is the most important part of rockery. It is better to place at the entrance, near the house or near the pond. Milfoil, violet, forget-me-not, wild marjoram, iris, yellow wood sorrel, bell are perfect for the decoration of rockery. Trees are also suitable for its decoration - thuja, pine tree mountain, spirea and Japanese quince. Thus through the combination of plants and stones it is possible to create an unusual, colourful corner in the garden. Since in a garden designed with irregular style the green color almost always prevails the silvery foliage of poplars, white willows, maples, birches, nut-trees, larches, oaks, chestnuts, fir trees, yew-trees, lindens and elms is a good addition. Bright, juicy grasses look better near the house and field and forest perennials look better in the garden.

      Two garden types are associated with the Mediterranean region: irregular and regular.
      IRREGULAR GARDEN tend to feature gravel, with plants arranged in structural groups or masses. Сitrus fruits, vines, lavender, and rosemary thrive in these conditions, as do succulents and grasses, while colors tend to be muted, incorporating soft sage-gray greens and purple-blues.
      In the Mediterranean gravel gardens, pathways are not defined by formal paving. Instead, gravel is used between areas of planting and to create pathways, across the entire space, serving as both hard landscaping and a mulch for planted areas. This unifies the garden, allowing plants to be grouped informally and leaving smaller areas of paving to provide more stable surfaces for seating.
      Pergolas or arbors are used for shade, and when planted with vines and other climbers they enhance the Mediterranean atmosphere, providing the perfect location for sharing al fresco meals. Alternatively, trees are planted for patterned shade, either in groves or as individual specimens in key locations. Drifts of plants appear to emerge spontaneously in the gravel, perhaps punctuated by arrangements of rocks and boulders. Sometimes a dry stream bed is recreated with clusters of informally arranged, drought-resistant plants.

      Water is used to create sound or as a focal point in the design, but, as it is considered a precious resource in these landscapes, it would not normally be seen in the form of large pools.
      Colorful tiles and mosaics provide vibrant patterns while planted terra-cotta pots add splashes of vivid red or pink. For more intimate and often urban spaces.
      Terra-cotta instantly evokes the style, supplemented by mosaic tiles or features to add splashes of color. Walls are often clear backdrops for shadows, but where paint is used, hues are often bold. Rustic containers introduce colorful planting at key points, and may be used as focal features or arranged in informal groups of  different sizes.

      REGULAR GARDENS of the Mediterranean tend to utilize water and stone, often with clipped hedges and specimen trees such as tall, slender cypresses. Decorative parterre planting is also indicative of the formal style, with plants selected for foliage rather than flower color, and densely planted trees such as Holm oak providing cool shade.

      Shady seating areas - in these sun-drenched gardens, shade is key, and can be provided by trees planted  individually or in groups. Timber pergolas and arbors with climbers also provide a shady setting for outdoor dining.
      Gravel floor - limestone forms the typical gravel of the Mediterranean, creating a light, textured surface through which plants can grow. Larger boulders can be used as focal points. Landscape fabric below suppresses weeds.
      Rills and pools - water is often confined to rills in more formal gardens, and is used to refresh the air or to mark spatial divisions. In gravel gardens, overflowing containers or water bowls are used for reflections and gentle sound.
      Succulents and silver foliage - many species have adapted to drought with fine, silver, or fleshy foliage. Rosemary and lavender are typically used, with Euphorbia, Agave, Yucca, Bergenia, and Genista providing suitable associations.
      Terra-cotta pots and tiles - the Mediterranean is famous for the terra-cotta pots used in gardens, as focal points or as planted containers. Old olive oil pots make sculptural features. Aim for larger-sized pots where possible.
      Mosaic features - floor surfaces in courtyards (or on roof terraces) are created from tiny, colored cobbles laid out in intricate patterns. Glazed and brightly colored tiles are also often used to decorate walls and grottoes.

      The presence of an internal cavity,  surrounded on all sides, is the characteristic property of Moorish garden. Other characteristic features of Moorish gardens include ceramics (the predominant colours of which are terracotta and red), forged iron - patterns “knobbles" and “curls” are characteristic, forged iron benches, lattices, arbors, round garden tables and table tops which are frequently lined with pieces of ceramics.

      ? Everything is blissful - sweet smelling flowers, exotic birds in gold cages, sparkling water jets which flow on the marble beds
      ? Centrepieces are common - fountains or ponds, with channels dispersing into different directions
      ? The geometric correctness of the landscape, which must be combined with a large amount of vegetation
      ? Plants do not undergo trimming. A variety of grasses, flowers and aromas are present
      ? The courtyard of houses or palaces, as a rule, are small in size.
      ? Luxury, splendour and incredible combinations of water, air, aromas of flowers, sounds and colours.

      Chinese gardens are very natural and flat lawns, trimmed, cone-shaped bushes and trees are never used. Nature is the chief teacher of the source of beauty and calmness for them. The gardens of China are developed in the irregular style, which tries to connect man with wild and primitive nature as much as possible. The most important principle is the harmonious connection of garden scenery and architecture - these are habitable buildings and terrace, pavilions and gazebos, towers, houses for the tea ceremonies - tea houses, the courtyards and the galleries covered with tile, which make it possible to admire park with any weather and houses for playing music. The lines of the garden's buildings repeat the natural lines of the surrounding environment: bridges are smoothly bent above the water, the slopes of the roofs of bright gazebos are rounded, the silhouettes of pavilions are softly outlined.

      Chinese style is based on the study of Feng-Shui - one of the earliest methods of creating gardens in the world which spans several millennia. It means “wind and water” when translated into English. These two elements are two of the key aspects of Feng-Shui because they are considered the source of Chi energy. The free motion of energy is considered a symbol of prosperity and health; therefore all things must provide the right movement of this energy. When planning the site the main feature should be the naturalness of the landscape. The equilibrium of forms and sizes is the most important component. According to Feng-Shui several beautiful, delicate flowers, surrounded by natural verdure, contribute much more to the flow of Chi energy than bright and vivid flower beds, which have a lost sense of delicacy.

      Water is a required part of the garden, it is present in a calm state and in the flowing form and always indicates the positive motion of Chi energy. Calm water symbolizes peace and silence while flowing water personifies life, motion and change. Ponds with planted flowers on them are shallow and a have natural liner. Spectacular smoothness is considered to allow you to look inside yourself, it is thought to show the reflection of soul and consciousness, this is a very symbolic image, which symbolize the perfect spirit. There are many ponds and they are usually accompanied by houses.
      Stone has great significance. Very frequently it is used in the form of a mound without abundant vegetation, it is used in the construction of structures and in the form statues or separate accentuated features. Stones are used also as sculptures in the design of gardens, on the edges of ponds and in small rock gardens.
      Structures - park gazebos, platforms, bridges, verandas, galleries - are vividly painted and accentuate the verdure of the parks.
      Plants - are very diverse and many different types are used: coniferous trees (pine tree, juniper, etc.), deciduous trees (maples, chinese oaks, cedars, etc.), and fruit trees (plums, pears, cherries, etc.). There are many colourful plants and flowers. The plants of Chinese gardens have specific symbolism. The most popular tree is bamboo, which grows in abundance in China and symbolizes strength. Pine trees are a symbol of wisdom, the blooming plum symbolizes revival  and is extremely valuable to the Chinese because of its beautiful pink and white flowers which bloom during the winter. The chrysanthemums, which personify brilliancy and magnificence are also extremely valued because of their autumnal flowering, when the majority of plants wither. Peonies symbolize wealth and authority and the lotus symbolize cleanliness. These plants are complimented by rose vines, camellias, ginkgo, magnolias, peaches, jasmine, willows, sweet osmanthus and maples.

      Chinese gardens are a spiritual refuge for the people, a place in which they could perceive themselves differently from their real social lives and close to an ancient way of life their true connection with nature.

      Japanese garden is the favourite style of the small garden. This not by chance. The garden is small in size, but its image is not limited by the theatrical miniature garden with lanterns, bridges and umbrellas. The basic sense of its creation consists of the fact that each component is arranged by its internal meaning. Paved paths in the form of waves over a layer of sand and symbolic compositions made from natural stone. But this must not disrupt the basic principle of the design of Japanese gardens is the sensation of calmness and appeasement, enjoyment by nature and its miniaturization. The image of nature in a reduced form, the tendency to create the impression of three-dimensional depth lead to a shift in the proportions of natural scale as well as to the use of dwarfish trees and cliffs, i.e. to a certain romanticism. The view, created in this garden, is distant from real nature, but is based on it.
      Japanese gardens create a three-dimensional solution, closest to the contemporary concept of a small garden as a part of a home. Even its sizes, close to the area of a living room, produce the impression of an interior space. Japanese gardens are not designed for walks, instead they are designed for passive contemplation from a fixed point from which it is not possible to detach the eye, usually from the window or the veranda of the home.
      The area of the Japanese garden can fill an corner or niche inside or outside of the house or be located in a space only a few of steps from the wall. Japanese garden can consist of a few plants. Relief in the Japanese style is both artificial and natural. This garden is relatively low maintenance. But at the same time it is one of the most complex to design, because a feeling of measure and taste is very important because Japanese gardens are always a work of art.
      Stones - are an important element and symbolize steep mountains. They can be large or small and can be positioned vertically or horizontally, depending on concept, they are used as substitutes for sculptural decor. Stones can be arranged alone, in groups or can be used for creating hills or grottos and for emphasizing the turns of a path or coastline. The virtuoso use of stones of different colours and form creates extraordinary variety in the gardens. Even several stones and handful of sand can symbolize sea shore.
      Bamboo - is a characteristic accessory from which mats and enclosures are made.
      Components such as curtains with knots, moss under pine trees, group of stones and rock lights, still ponds with bridges or passages from individual stones, tsukubai with water for lustration, small pagodas and carved stone steps are also used.
      Plants for the design of the garden are selected very thoroughly. The most commonly used coniferous tree was usually the pine tree. Other forms of pines, cedars, firs, cypresses, yews and junipers are also used. The same can be said about the deciduous trees, the colourful plants and the fruit plants - sakuras, plums and apricots. Magnolias, rhododendrons, forsythias, daphnes and weigelas were some of the popular plants. The relict trees such as ginkgos, camphors and others were frequently seen. Collection of plants was such so that the flowering of fruit replaces the colouration of the maples, and the locks of branches produce a unique figure in winter. Flowers like the hosta, astilba and chrysanthemum are rarely used in the designs of this style, except when they are necessary, in which case they are used in the form spots or splashes of the deep tones and as colour accents. Irises, lotuses and lilies are almost always grown in the ponds. Containers and pots for the plants are made from ceramics and other natural materials that have bright tones or in the form of wooden saucers with a picture made with relief.
      Bonsai - is the art of growing miniature trees to give the garden romanticism.
      Water in the site must always be present, at least in the form of a small waterfall, pool or lakelet. If there is no real pond, then a “dry view” is used. The paths, which mimic the form and turns of the water and flow around islands or continents, valleys and gorges are drawn with rakes on the white sand.