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    Italy

    Since 1530 the landscape design of Italy formed into two main styles. One of them, closely related to the ideology of the Catholic Church, soon led to the Baroque style. The other, called Renaissance. From the East, numerous crusades brought new cultural movements to the Europeans. This circumstance brought about the epoch of Revival (Renaissance) in Europe which most vividly appeared in Italy in XIV-XVI c.

    European Countries from ХV c. - to the Beginning of the XVIII c. Regular Style

    The Middle Ages were the Golden Age of landscape design. The difficult and chaotic Middle Ages was the cause of the bloom of culture which began in the XV c. and continued until the XVIII c. In some regions of Europe the knowledge which was accumulated before was lost over time, but in other regions landscape design progressed and flourished.

    Monastery and Feudal Gardens

    In the V-IX c. A.D.  feudalism brought with itself many internal wars, which slowed down the development of landscaping. It existed only in the protected territories of monasteries and castles. Europeans forgot most of the traditions of ancient times and the purpose of garden became exceptionally utilitarian, to supply its owner with food.

    Moorish Gardens

    In Spain in VIII - XIV c. A.D., after its conquest by the Arabs (the Moors), appears the special form of garden called the patio. This is a closed type of garden, in which the ancient traditions and Persian gardens merged during its development. The oldest of the still existing, preserved Moorish gardens is the patio of the palace ensemble in Grenada.

    Europe in the Middle Ages

    Compared to other periods in landscape design history, little is known about the medieval period of landscape design. The barbarian invasions of the 4th and 5th centuries destroyed the Roman civilization and with it the gardens of Western Europe.

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